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An important event in the development of cinema art in the 30s was the invention of sound. This new discovery actively influenced the development of the system of cinematic expressiveness, became an important component of the film image and led to the emergence of musical film genres: musicals, film operas, etc. At the same time, analyzing this period in the history of world cinema, it is necessary to remember that the 30s of the 20th century. were associated with acute social cataclysms. On the one hand, the Great Depression, which stunned the USA, and on the other hand, the imminent danger of fascism and totalitarianism, which loomed over Europe, gave rise to feelings of insecurity, fear, and tragic foreboding in the artists of the 1930s.

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Despite the crisis of the US economy in the 1930s, the American cinematography of this period experienced the highest rise and prosperity - its "golden age". The viewer wanted to watch movies more than ever. This unexpected, at first glance, situation was explained quite simply. Along with exquisite elitist paintings by J. Ford (1895-1974) "The Grapes of Wrath", "Young Mr. Lincoln", W. Wyler (1902-1981) "The Dead Corner", "The Foxes", O. Wells (1915-1985) " Citizen Kane", which admired for its innovation in the field of drama, in the system of expressive means, stunned with its psychological depth and social significance, commercial genres are becoming widespread: gangster films, horror films, melodramas, musicals, westerns, etc. So, American cinema of the 1930s performed a certain compensatory function, distracting the viewer from life's problems.

Chaplin began his career in cinema at the Keystone Film studio. It was headed by the patriarch of American comedy M. Sennett, whose school also went through the famous comedians B. Keaton and G. Lloyd. However, the real "godfather" of American cinema of the beginning of the 20th century. certainly was D. W. Griffith (1875–1948). His films, among which the Birth of a Nation and Intolerance should be especially noted, enriched not only US cinema, but also the entire world cinema with new means of expression, improvement of the specifics of montage (parallel montage). Extremely interesting experiments are taking place at the same time and on the other side of the ocean - in the countries of Eastern Europe, in particular in Russia, where directors Ya. Protazanov, V. Gardin, E. Bauer, whose work was connected with the flourishing of the melodrama genre, are actively working.

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Our editors conducted a survey in which 100 respondents of different ages and genders took part. According to the results, 75% of the respondents claim that they mostly do not watch Ukrainian cinema and have a neutral attitude towards it, although their further answers let us understand that they still watch Ukrainian cinema without identifying it with Ukraine. When asked to mention Ukrainian film works, 40% of respondents could not give an answer. Among the 60% of respondents who were able to remember Ukrainian cinema, the following films were most often mentioned: "Squat32" (2019, romantic drama), "Mykyta Kozhumyak" (2016, cartoon), "Devoted" (2020, historical drama), "Mad Wedding" (2018, comedy), "I, You, He, She" (2018, comedy).

Oleksandr Petrovych Dovzhenko (1894–1956) is a Ukrainian film director, writer, artist, founder of Ukrainian film art. A specific feature of O. P. Dovzhenko's work is the movement from the mythological structures of the ancient Slavic worldview to "social order" and social myth-making, which determined the peculiarity of the periodization of the director's legacy. The first period is the stage of apprenticeship in the work of O. Dovzhenko, which is associated with the paintings "The Berry of Love". "Vasya the reformer" and "The Diplomat's Bag".

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