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Despite the crisis of the US economy in the 1930s, the American cinematography of this period experienced the highest rise and prosperity - its "golden age". The viewer wanted to watch movies more than ever. This unexpected, at first glance, situation was explained quite simply. Along with exquisite elitist paintings by J. Ford (1895-1974) "The Grapes of Wrath", "Young Mr. Lincoln", W. Wyler (1902-1981) "The Dead Corner", "The Foxes", O. Wells (1915-1985) " Citizen Kane", which admired for its innovation in the field of drama, in the system of expressive means, stunned with its psychological depth and social significance, commercial genres are becoming widespread: gangster films, horror films, melodramas, musicals, westerns, etc. So, American cinema of the 1930s performed a certain compensatory function, distracting the viewer from life's problems.

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The essay devoted to the history of animated cinema belongs to O. Shupyk, the author of numerous articles and books about Ukrainian animation. Having chosen the historical-theoretical aspect of presenting the material, the author singles out the main periods of formation and development of domestic animation. Paying attention to the development of new genre and stylistic solutions, O. Shupyk emphasizes the dynamic development of this type of cinematography, the appearance in its aesthetic space of philosophical parables, eccentric comedies, satirical-grotesque films on modern themes. Moreover, attention is not lost to national thoughts, fairy tales, legends, which were resolved in the folklore-epic vein. The process of changing generations, which resulted in a kind of fruitful competition, does not pass by the author's attention: the youth grew up "on the shoulders" of their predecessors, the "living classics" often followed the path of the searches that young artists were making.

This film forever engraved the director's name in the list of outstanding artists20th century worldcinematography In front of it, F. F. Coppola, U.Friedkin, S. Lumet and others.Thematic update by Gollywood was conditioned by the need forchanging the hero. Yes, inthe second half of the 60s -in the first half of the 70s appear on the screen like thiscalled antiheroes. Unlikelegendary x handsome men, "knights without fear"reproach" of the 30s,new heroes havecertainhuman weaknesses, but under any conditions they do not lose their sense of self-worth. Such imagesembodied by outstanding actors, known to the whole world as the brilliant Hollywood four - D. Hoffman,R. De Niro, J. Nicholson, Al Pacino.Al Pacino, outstandingAmerican and actorof Italian origin, pupil of the Higherschool of performing arts of TV, organically combines work in the theater in its activitiesand cinema.However, the worldwide fame of Al Pacinoidentified with cinema.

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The second period - the flowering of the artist's talent - led to the creation of O. Dovzhenko's "Slavic trilogy": "Zvenigora", "Arsenal". "Earth", which testified to the mythopoetic vision of the director, which was reflected in the visual construction of these tapes and had a significant impact on the further development of world cinema. The film "Ivan" performed the function of a "plastic bridge" to the third period in the work of O. P. Dovzhenko - the period of "two Stalinist decades", which resulted in the films "Aerograd", "ITsors", "Michurin". In the work of the director, ancient Slavic mythological ideas, the specifics of Ukrainian national self-awareness, and the philosophical understanding of common human meaningful life problems were organically combined, which led to the introduction of O. P. Dovzhenko's characters into the European cultural context.

In some texts, the authors focus not so much on the film process as on its historical and social context. Thus, Z. Alfyorova draws attention to those general civilizational conflicts that were related to Ukraine and Ukrainian culture even in Soviet times. The author examines the artistic culture of Ukraine at the intersection of the influences of economic, political and socio-cultural systems and observes how the "crisis of reality", the "replacement of reality with signs of reality" is provoked both by the influence of "official" Soviet culture and the phenomena of early postmodernism. The author rightly notes that the internal dissidence of a certain circle of Ukrainian artists is reflected in the very style of screen works. However, interesting observations and theoretical generalizations do not always find concrete confirmation in the direct examination of the film process.

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