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Each era, each generation examines and studies the history of art from its own point of view. This constitutes the same subjective knowledge of objective truth. The history of Ukrainian cinema began in the 20th century. already at the end of the 20s. One of the first books that highlighted the history of domestic cinema was Ya. Savchenko's book "The Birth of Ukrainian Soviet Cinema" (1930). Years of repressions and wartime disasters did not contribute to the emergence of fundamental works of film studies. And only at the end of the 1950s, three books of essays "Ukrainian Soviet Cinema" published by the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR appeared. Its authors I. Kornienko, A. Zhukova, G. Zhurov, A. Romitsyn provide a systematic picture of Ukrainian cinema from the post-revolutionary years to the post-war years. It is interesting that in the early 1960s, the American film critic B. Berest published his work "The History of Ukrainian Cinema" (1962), which was largely polemical about the point of view of Soviet historians.

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The US film industry has developed a system of multi-genre independent cinema: both cult films and creative experiments by directors. As a rule, these are low-budget films made by little-known directors. "Independent films" are mainly non-commercial films that bring maximum profit to their creators, such as blockbusters, and therefore in them you can often see some creative experiments. Most often, it is from "independent" cinema that world-class stars emerge: for example, the debut film of the famous K. Tarantino was the film "Mad Dogs", which is now called a classic of independent cinema.

The theoretical basis of the Western avant-garde became the psychoanalytic concept of 3. Freud, the main task of which was to penetrate into the hiding place of the human psyche and explain the specifics of the unconscious. The experiments of the French avant-garde and German expressionists became vivid film illustrations of psychoanalytic theory.

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The further development of the world film process in the 1940s and 1960s was associated with the emergence of various directions that testified to the interesting searches and experiments that took place in its bowels. Prominent artists of world cinema stood near their origins. Thus, the phenomenon of "Italian neorealism" was associated with the names of R. Rossellini - "Rome - an open city", "Paisa"; V. De Sica - "Bicycle Thieves", "Umberto D.", "The Roof"; D. De Santis - "There is no peace under the olives", "Rome, 11 o'clock"; L. Visconti - "The Earth Trembles", "The Most Beautiful", whose creativity was stimulated by the artistic heritage of the outstanding Italian writer J. Verga.

Despite the crisis of the US economy in the 1930s, the American cinematography of this period experienced the highest rise and prosperity - its "golden age". The viewer wanted to watch movies more than ever. This unexpected, at first glance, situation was explained quite simply. Along with exquisite elitist paintings by J. Ford (1895-1974) "The Grapes of Wrath", "Young Mr. Lincoln", W. Wyler (1902-1981) "The Dead Corner", "The Foxes", O. Wells (1915-1985) " Citizen Kane", which admired for its innovation in the field of drama, in the system of expressive means, stunned with its psychological depth and social significance, commercial genres are becoming widespread: gangster films, horror films, melodramas, musicals, westerns, etc. So, American cinema of the 1930s performed a certain compensatory function, distracting the viewer from life's problems.

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