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Oleksandr Petrovych Dovzhenko (1894–1956) is a Ukrainian film director, writer, artist, founder of Ukrainian film art. A specific feature of O. P. Dovzhenko's work is the movement from the mythological structures of the ancient Slavic worldview to "social order" and social myth-making, which determined the peculiarity of the periodization of the director's legacy. The first period is the stage of apprenticeship in the work of O. Dovzhenko, which is associated with the paintings "The Berry of Love". "Vasya the reformer" and "The Diplomat's Bag".


The further development of the world film process in the 1940s and 1960s was associated with the emergence of various directions that testified to the interesting searches and experiments that took place in its bowels. Prominent artists of world cinema stood near their origins. Thus, the phenomenon of "Italian neorealism" was associated with the names of R. Rossellini - "Rome - an open city", "Paisa"; V. De Sica - "Bicycle Thieves", "Umberto D.", "The Roof"; D. De Santis - "There is no peace under the olives", "Rome, 11 o'clock"; L. Visconti - "The Earth Trembles", "The Most Beautiful", whose creativity was stimulated by the artistic heritage of the outstanding Italian writer J. Verga.

The Western avant-garde of the 1920s is vividly represented in French cinematography, in particular in the films of R. Clair (1890–1981) - "Paris Fell Asleep." "Intermission"; A. Hansa (1889–198'!) – "Wheel", "Napoleon"; in the surrealist tapes of L. Beunuel ([900_1983) – "Andalusian Dog", "The Golden Age" and in the cinema of Germany, in the depths of which the direction that was called film expressionism arose. Its prominent representatives were R. Wiene (1881–1938) – the director of the film “Cab!net of Dr. Caligari”, which is considered a manifesto of this direction, F. Lang (1890–1976) – “The Nibelungen”, “Weary Death”: F. Murnau (1889–1931) – "Nosferatu", "The Last Man".

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Ukrainian film art of the 1950s-1990s in feature films is connected with the work of R. Balayan, M. Belikov, L. Bykov, V. Braun, A. Bukovsky, V. Gresya, V. Denysenko, K. Yershov, V. Ivanova, V. Ivchenko, Yu. Ilyenka, O. Itigilova, G. Kokhan, V. Kryshtofovych, T. Levchuk, Ya. Lupiya, M. Mashchenko, I. Mykolaychuk, K. Muratova, O. Muratova, L. Osyka, S. Parajanova, B. Savchenko, P. Todorovsky, L. Shvachka, etc.; in documentary cinema - S. Bukovsky, O. Koval, M. Mamedov, O. Shklyarevsky, etc.; in popular science cinema - V. Olender, O. Rodnyansky, A. Serebrenikov, F. Sobolev, etc.; in animation - V. Dakhna, D. Cherkasky and others.

The advantage of "Essays" is the structuring of the material full of internal logic, the examination of artistic phenomena from different perspectives, from different angles of view, which gives the study scientific volume and stereoscopicity.

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