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diziler run the world

In the context of the totalitarian era, the historical film actively developed - "Alexander Nevsky" (director S. Eisenstein), "Bohdan Khmelnitsky" (director I. Savchenko), "Petro I" (director V. Petrov), the trilogy "Zlyva", "Perekop" , "Koliivshchyna" (director I. Kavaleridze).


That is why, when studying the cinematography of the 1930s, two important aspects should be taken into account: the social one, which prevailed in the cinematography of the Soviet period, German cinema and the cinematography of the United States, and the ontological one, which gave an impetus to the understanding of the processes that took place in the French cinematography of the specified period.

Chaplin began his career in cinema at the Keystone Film studio. It was headed by the patriarch of American comedy M. Sennett, whose school also went through the famous comedians B. Keaton and G. Lloyd. However, the real "godfather" of American cinema of the beginning of the 20th century. certainly was D. W. Griffith (1875–1948). His films, among which the Birth of a Nation and Intolerance should be especially noted, enriched not only US cinema, but also the entire world cinema with new means of expression, improvement of the specifics of montage (parallel montage). Extremely interesting experiments are taking place at the same time and on the other side of the ocean - in the countries of Eastern Europe, in particular in Russia, where directors Ya. Protazanov, V. Gardin, E. Bauer, whose work was connected with the flourishing of the melodrama genre, are actively working.

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The appearance of "Essays" was a qualitatively new step in the development of domestic film studies. A wide range of scientists belonging to different schools and directions in film studies took part in the work. The authors did not set themselves the goal of consistently covering all stages of the formation and development of cinematography on the territory of Ukraine. But, without a doubt, the compilers and authors managed to focus on key moments, trace the most important regularities of the filmmaking process. Issues that have remained on the margins of the historical science of cinema have come into focus. Separate chapters are devoted to both local phenomena and entire historical stages, and the authors mostly build their research on a solid theoretical foundation.

A characteristic feature of French cinematography in the 30s–60s of the 20th century. was his constant connection with the processes taking place in the philosophical environment. Thus, the creativity of the country's leading cinematographers (M. Carnet, J. Renoir, A. René, etc.), who worked in different historical periods and held different aesthetic positions, was stimulated by the concepts of the outstanding European theoretician A. Bergson. The American "counterculture", which was based on the concept of neo-Freudianism, the idea of ​​youth rebellion, was represented by A. Penn's films "The Chase" and "Little Big Man"; M. Nichols "Graduate"; D. Hopper's "Light Rider"; M. Forman - "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest" etc.

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