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The concept of film genre began to take shape with the establishment of the Hollywood studio system. It helped systematize the production of films and facilitated their promotion to the market. Each studio specialized in the production of films of a certain genre: Paramount Pictures produced comedies, Universal Studios - horror films, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer - musicals, etc. At the same time, some directors and actors began to associate the audience with specific genres of movies: director Alfred Hitchcock — with thrillers, Jeffrey Ford — with westerns, Douglas Sirk — with melodramas, Wes Craven and Lamberto Vava — with horror films, John By — with action films , Roland Emmerich — with disaster films.

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Paintings by V. I. Pudovkin "Mother", "End of St. Petersburg". "Descendants of Genghis Khan" made a significant contribution to the development of the imaginative nature of cinema, contributed to the enrichment of its montage specificity.

Each era, each generation examines and studies the history of art from its own point of view. This constitutes the same subjective knowledge of objective truth. The history of Ukrainian cinema began in the 20th century. already at the end of the 20s. One of the first books that highlighted the history of domestic cinema was Ya. Savchenko's book "The Birth of Ukrainian Soviet Cinema" (1930). Years of repressions and wartime disasters did not contribute to the emergence of fundamental works of film studies. And only at the end of the 1950s, three books of essays "Ukrainian Soviet Cinema" published by the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR appeared. Its authors I. Kornienko, A. Zhukova, G. Zhurov, A. Romitsyn provide a systematic picture of Ukrainian cinema from the post-revolutionary years to the post-war years. It is interesting that in the early 1960s, the American film critic B. Berest published his work "The History of Ukrainian Cinema" (1962), which was largely polemical about the point of view of Soviet historians.

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In some texts, the authors focus not so much on the film process as on its historical and social context. Thus, Z. Alfyorova draws attention to those general civilizational conflicts that were related to Ukraine and Ukrainian culture even in Soviet times. The author examines the artistic culture of Ukraine at the intersection of the influences of economic, political and socio-cultural systems and observes how the "crisis of reality", the "replacement of reality with signs of reality" is provoked both by the influence of "official" Soviet culture and the phenomena of early postmodernism. The author rightly notes that the internal dissidence of a certain circle of Ukrainian artists is reflected in the very style of screen works. However, interesting observations and theoretical generalizations do not always find concrete confirmation in the direct examination of the film process.

Despite the crisis of the US economy in the 1930s, the American cinematography of this period experienced the highest rise and prosperity - its "golden age". The viewer wanted to watch movies more than ever. This unexpected, at first glance, situation was explained quite simply. Along with exquisite elitist paintings by J. Ford (1895-1974) "The Grapes of Wrath", "Young Mr. Lincoln", W. Wyler (1902-1981) "The Dead Corner", "The Foxes", O. Wells (1915-1985) " Citizen Kane", which admired for its innovation in the field of drama, in the system of expressive means, stunned with its psychological depth and social significance, commercial genres are becoming widespread: gangster films, horror films, melodramas, musicals, westerns, etc. So, American cinema of the 1930s performed a certain compensatory function, distracting the viewer from life's problems.

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